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  • Create Date Ekim 8, 2022
  • Last Updated Ocak 9, 2023

Since the first half of the 20th century, the negative effects of chemical agricultural inputs have been noticed by farmers, the general public and authorities, and more sustainable, environmentally friendly agricultural systems are being used. Within the scope of Albert Howard and Rudolf Steiner's studies, sensible producers and consumers came together in many European countries and started ecological agriculture practice. The practice gained an international attribute with the establishment of the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) in 1972. Established by 5 founding organizations, IFOAM aims to gather the organic agriculture movements all over the world under one roof, to direct the development of the movement in a healthy way, to prepare the necessary standards and regulations (the first one was published in 1980), and to transfer all developments to its members and related sectors. The world trade in organic products developed in the 1980s, and in the late 1990s there was a significant increase in consumer demand for organic products, especially due to concerns and reactions to issues such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). The first regulation on organic agriculture in the world was published by the EU in 1991 and then many changes were made and the section on animal products was added in 1999. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and World Health Organization (WHO) issued the Codex Alimentarius organic agriculture guideline in 1999, then the organic agriculture standards in the USA known as National Organic Standard (NOP) and JAS Organic in Japan, were added in 2000. All these codes and guidelines have affected market trends and product movements over the world. Nowadays, organic agriculture is carried out on approximately 72.3 million hectares of land in 187 countries. The countries with the largest amount of organic farmland globally are Australia (35.7 million hectares), Argentina (3.7 million hectares), and Spain (2.4 million hectares). The countries with the largest organic farmlands in Europe are Spain (14 percent of Europe's organic farmlands), France, Italy, and Germany
e-Module Editors
Candan Karakurt-Turkey
Dr. Bumin Emre Teke-Turkey
Dr. Bülent Bülbül-Turkey
e-Module Authors (by surname order)
Dr. Bülent Bülbül-Turkey
María de los Angeles Catalán Balmaseda-Spain
Dr. Antonio Compagnoni-Italy
Candan Karakurt-Turkey
Halil İbrahim Kınalı-Turkey
Begoña Lozano Diéguez-Spain
Alicia Martín Garcia de la Torre-Spain
Nicola Louise Noble -UK
Dr. Fatih Özdemir-Turkey
Dr. Gonzalo Palomo-Spain
Phil Stocker-UK
Mehmet Şenarslan-Turkey
Dr. Bumin Emre Teke-Turkey
Marcello Volanti-Italy