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  • Create Date Ekim 8, 2022
  • Last Updated Ocak 9, 2023

Reproduction is the key to any livestock production, especially in meat production. All direct income will depend on the farmer's ability to increase reproductive rates, which depend on the importance of natural resources and the breeding plan itself in sustainable extensive systems.
In this unit we will review the anatomical and physiological reproductive basis of food animals, taking cattle as a reference. Then we will focus on practical aspects of reproductive management of animals in organic agro-silvopastoral systems, where natural methods of reproduction must be used, although artificial insemination is allowed as the only artificial method, and cloning and embryo transfer are totally forbidden. We will therefore carry out reproductive management based mainly on observation and knowledge rather than on technology, since the peculiarities of the extensive system are not the most appropriate for technification: recognition of oestrus, mating, gestation and its diagnosis, calving, udder and lactation and finally the first stages of breeding.
In spite of this minimal technification, throughout the text we will study examples of reproduction and breeding technology, new or old, but which are giving good results in the different species we have been dealing with: cattle, sheep, goats and pigs: male effect, flushing, gestation diagnosis.
In many cases we are going to advance contents related to nutrition, behaviour. Reproduction is the last vital function and it is a “luxury” in nature, so that only when the rest of the animal's needs are completely covered will there be the circumstances to achieve the highest reproductive rates.
e-Module Editors
Candan Karakurt-Turkey
Dr. Bumin Emre Teke-Turkey
Dr. Bülent Bülbül-Turkey
e-Module Authors (by surname order)
Dr. Bülent Bülbül-Turkey
María de los Angeles Catalán Balmaseda-Spain
Dr. Antonio Compagnoni-Italy
Candan Karakurt-Turkey
Halil İbrahim Kınalı-Turkey
Begoña Lozano Diéguez-Spain
Alicia Martín Garcia de la Torre-Spain
Nicola Louise Noble -UK
Dr. Fatih Özdemir-Turkey
Dr. Gonzalo Palomo-Spain
Phil Stocker-UK
Mehmet Şenarslan-Turkey
Dr. Bumin Emre Teke-Turkey
Marcello Volanti-Italy